Implementing 3R in Vietnam: Current status & solutions

According to Professor. Kitano (Japan): "Waste will only be waste if they are mixed, but waste will become resources if you classify them properly!". That's why, over the years, some countries
According to Professor. Kitano (Japan): "Waste will only be waste if they are mixed, but waste will become resources if you classify them properly!". That's why, over the years, some countries

Benefits of implementing the 3Rs

3R is an acronym for the first three letters in English: Reduce – Reuse – Recycle.

In fact, implementing the 3R model will bring a number of basic benefits such as: Raising awareness of people and businesses about garbage issues and garbage treatment; Prevent environmental degradation problems: reduce air and groundwater pollution; Saving natural resources and raw material exploitation costs; Save costs on waste collection and treatment, reduce daily waste volume; Reduce the land fund reserved for landfilling.

Overview of 3R implementation in Vietnam

To help Vietnam methodically implement the 3R model, on December 1, 2006, a Japanese Expert Delegation came to Vietnam to research and support.

On February 12, 2007, City People's Committee. Hanoi has officially issued a Decision approving the 3R project. Since March 18, 2007, the project "Implementing the 3R initiative in Hanoi to contribute to sustainable social development" is owned by Hanoi Urban Environment Company Limited (URENCO) with a Investment of nearly 49.5 billion VND from non-refundable aid from the Japanese Government officially launched. The project implementation period lasts for 3 years. According to Mr. Chu Van Chung - Director of URENCO, the 3R system is established in a harmonious way based on organic waste classification programs at source to improve management capacity. Effective waste management and treatment in the Capital.

In Hanoi, this project is a pilot project to classify organic waste at source and then replicate it throughout the city and other localities. The important content of the project is to carry out environmental education and 3R activities with the spirit of anti-waste while aiming to improve the urban solid waste collection system. Accordingly, households in the four districts of Hoan Kiem, Hai Ba Trung, Ba Dinh, Dong Da will be encouraged and propagated to improve their knowledge of waste classification right at home: organic waste (vegetables, tubers, flowers, fruits, leftover food...) other than inorganic waste (bottles, jars, broken bricks, metals...) before being taken to the collection vehicle of urban environmental staff. Then, instead of burying or burning, the garbage will be utilized in a number of activities with great economic benefits such as pig farming, compost production... The project's implementation has soon linked the Stakeholders: collection units - people - waste disposal - waste treatment plants - farmers using fertilizers made from waste. The project was in operation for nearly 9 months when the 3R Hanoi Volunteer Club was born (December 2007). With an operating style of "Dynamic, enthusiastic, creative", this Club has attracted nearly 200 volunteers who share a love for the environment. Volunteers are divided into many groups and combined with collection workers to guide people to dump trash in the right places.

According to Mr. Nguyen Van Hoa, Deputy General Director of URENCO, after 1 year of participating in the 3R project, in the pilot wards, the urban landscape is cleaner and the phenomenon of littering is minimized. The accuracy in garbage classification is 80-90%. For waste classification at source to be widely implemented in Vietnam, it takes a long time, not only to develop regulations but also to propagate and improve people's awareness. "An advanced country like Japan also takes 15-20 years" - Mr. Hoa said.

At the same time, solid waste management according to the 3R model was also piloted in a number of districts in large cities. At the same time, the 3R industrial waste treatment model in industrial parks in some provinces and cities was also born. Typically, Dai Thang Trading and Production Development Company Limited (Hai Phong City) has invested nearly 100 billion VND to build a recycling and industrial waste treatment plant on an area of 18 thousand m2 with equipment, modern equipments.

The benefits of applying the 3R model can be clearly seen, but the implementation is still not satisfactory, because the habit of littering has become very difficult for many people to break. Waste classification at source has not been strictly implemented. Some large-scale waste generators have not yet segregated waste at source.

Although a number of localities across the country have been implementing 3R projects, in general they are only implemented in small pieces, asynchronously and lacking direction. The remaining households in the country are not equipped with equipment to classify waste at source. Transfer points as well as waste transportation have not been built and are not equipped enough to meet the requirements for transporting and treating each type of waste separately. Besides, the broader community has not yet realized the benefits of implementing the 3Rs. The number of businesses participating in applying biological production is not many.

Some basic solutions

The national strategic goal is that by 2020, 95% of solid waste will be collected and 60% will be reused and recycled. To prevent the increase in pollution, contribute to environmental protection, protect and rationally use natural resources, and improve quality of life, implementing the 3R model is determined to be the task of the entire society. festival. The 3R implementation strategy must be an inseparable part of the national environmental protection strategy and policy system. To do that, we need to synchronize some of the following basic solutions:

1. Raise community awareness.

Recognizing the importance of cooperative action of the participants is very important, thereby promoting activities related to 3R.

2. Share information.

The success of the 3R environment requires collaboration between extremely diverse participants, from the product design stage to the recycling/disposal stage, so information sharing is vital to forming trusting understanding and cooperation among participants.

3. Supporting policies.

Support policies to promote the 3R model can be divided into two main groups: economic support and social support. The main economic support group for businesses includes: tax incentives, low interest loans, subsidies and unsecured loans. Social incentive groups can be meetings and exchanges, for example to explain the need to collect leftover food and waste on shopping streets or award ceremonies for the green environment...

4. Cooperation.

To fully realize their own role in the early stages of implementing the 3R model, all participants need to make great efforts and require coordinated cooperation between participants.

Fifth, science and technology (KH-Tech)

Continuously applying science and technology research to the production and consumption system allows recycling of materials, development of clean technologies to promote the implementation of 3R at the production stage and technical development to increase productivity. Strengthen 3R in product design. In addition, through providing information about science and technology to the public and cooperative relationships between universities, research organizations and local governments/communities have made an important contribution to introducing Scientific and technological achievements enter into the real life of each region.